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burrow-pi-img/README.md

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# Burrow Pi Image
This is a fork of the [pi-gen](https://github.com/RPi-Distro/pi-gen) project, the "tool used to create the raspberrypi.org Raspbian images". `pi-gen` serves as a decent base becuase it:
* Builds compact images that self-inflate on the device during the first boot
* Provides a comfortable development workflow
I modified `pi-gen` with the following features:
* Rudefox Burrow installed
* Auto-login
* Read-only filesystem (as a security measure to prevent you from accidentally storing sensitive information on this low-security hardware)
* Most user-space networking packages removed (kernel still included networking capabilities)
## Dependencies
pi-gen runs on Debian based operating systems. Currently it is only supported on
either Debian Buster or Ubuntu Xenial and is known to have issues building on
earlier releases of these systems. On other Linux distributions it may be possible
to use the Docker build described below.
To install the required dependencies for pi-gen you should run:
```bash
apt-get install coreutils quilt parted qemu-user-static debootstrap zerofree zip \
dosfstools bsdtar libcap2-bin grep rsync xz-utils file git curl bc
```
The file `depends` contains a list of tools needed. The format of this
package is `<tool>[:<debian-package>]`.
## Config
Upon execution, `build.sh` will source the file `config` in the current
working directory. This bash shell fragment is intended to set needed
environment variables.
The following environment variables are supported:
* `IMG_NAME` (Default: `RudefoxBurrow`)
The name of the image to build with the current stage directories. Setting
`IMG_NAME=Raspbian` is logical for an unmodified RPi-Distro/pi-gen build,
but you should use something else for a customized version. Export files
in stages may add suffixes to `IMG_NAME`.
* `RUDEFOX_REPO_USERNAME` (Default: `anonymous`)
If the value is set to `anonymous`, then Burrow is pulled from the publicly available Rudefox repository. Otherwise, the build attempts to login to the Rudefox private repository for access to SNAPSHOT builds using the provided `RUDEFOX_REPO_USERNAME` / `RUDEFOX_REPO_PASSWORD` credentials.
* `RUDEFOX_BURROW_VERSION` (Default: `latest`)
If the value is set to `latest`, then the latest version is pulled from the Rudefox repository and installed. Otherwise, the specified version is downloadedand installed.
* `RELEASE` (Default: buster)
The release version to build images against. Valid values are jessie, stretch
buster, bullseye, and testing.
* `APT_PROXY` (Default: unset)
If you require the use of an apt proxy, set it here. This proxy setting
will not be included in the image, making it safe to use an `apt-cacher` or
similar package for development.
If you have Docker installed, you can set up a local apt caching proxy to
like speed up subsequent builds like this:
docker-compose up -d
echo 'APT_PROXY=http://172.17.0.1:3142' >> config
* `BASE_DIR` (Default: location of `build.sh`)
**CAUTION**: Currently, changing this value will probably break build.sh
Top-level directory for `pi-gen`. Contains stage directories, build
scripts, and by default both work and deployment directories.
* `WORK_DIR` (Default: `"$BASE_DIR/work"`)
Directory in which `pi-gen` builds the target system. This value can be
changed if you have a suitably large, fast storage location for stages to
be built and cached. Note, `WORK_DIR` stores a complete copy of the target
system for each build stage, amounting to tens of gigabytes in the case of
Raspbian.
**CAUTION**: If your working directory is on an NTFS partition you probably won't be able to build. Make sure this is a proper Linux filesystem.
* `DEPLOY_DIR` (Default: `"$BASE_DIR/deploy"`)
Output directory for target system images and NOOBS bundles.
* `DEPLOY_ZIP` (Default: `1`)
Setting to `0` will deploy the actual image (`.img`) instead of a zipped image (`.zip`).
* `USE_QEMU` (Default: `"0"`)
Setting to '1' enables the QEMU mode - creating an image that can be mounted via QEMU for an emulated
environment. These images include "-qemu" in the image file name.
* `LOCALE_DEFAULT` (Default: "en_CA.UTF-8" )
Default system locale.
* `TARGET_HOSTNAME` (Default: "burrow" )
Setting the hostname to the specified value.
* `KEYBOARD_MODEL` (Default: "Generic 101-key PC" )
Default keyboard model.
To get the current value from a running system, run `debconf-show
keyboard-configuration` and look at the
`keyboard-configuration/model` value.
* `KEYBOARD_KEYMAP` (Default: "us" )
Default keyboard keymap.
To get the current value from a running system, run `debconf-show
keyboard-configuration` and look at the
`keyboard-configuration/xkb-keymap` value.
* `KEYBOARD_LAYOUT` (Default: "English (UK)" )
Default keyboard layout.
To get the current value from a running system, run `debconf-show
keyboard-configuration` and look at the
`keyboard-configuration/variant` value.
* `TIMEZONE_DEFAULT` (Default: "Europe/London" )
Default keyboard layout.
To get the current value from a running system, look in
`/etc/timezone`.
* `FIRST_USER_NAME` (Default: "rudefox" )
Username for the first user
* `FIRST_USER_PASS` (Default: "burrow")
Password for the first user
* `WPA_ESSID`, `WPA_PASSWORD` and `WPA_COUNTRY` (Default: unset)
If these are set, they are use to configure `wpa_supplicant.conf`, so that the Raspberry Pi can automatically connect to a wifi network on first boot. If `WPA_ESSID` is set and `WPA_PASSWORD` is unset an unprotected wifi network will be configured. If set, `WPA_PASSWORD` must be between 8 and 63 characters.
* `ENABLE_SSH` (Default: `0`)
Setting to `1` will enable ssh server for remote log in. Note that if you are using a common password such as the defaults there is a high risk of attackers taking over you Raspberry Pi.
* `STAGE_LIST` (Default: `stage[0-2]`)
The default setting builds only the "lite" image for Rudefox Burrow, which is all you need.
If set, then instead of working through the numeric stages in order, this list will be followed. For example setting to `"stage0 stage1 mystage stage2"` will run the contents of `mystage` before stage2. Note that quotes are needed around the list. An absolute or relative path can be given for stages outside the pi-gen directory.
A simple example for building RaspbianBurrow:
```bash
APT_PROXY=http://172.17.10.10:3142
TIMEZONE_DEFAULT="America/Toronto"
```
The config file can also be specified on the command line as an argument the `build.sh` or `build-docker.sh` scripts.
```
./build.sh -c myconfig
```
This is parsed after `config` so can be used to override values set there.
## How the build process works
The following process is followed to build images:
* Loop through all of the stage directories in alphanumeric order
* Move on to the next directory if this stage directory contains a file called
"SKIP"
* Run the script ```prerun.sh``` which is generally just used to copy the build
directory between stages.
* In each stage directory loop through each subdirectory and then run each of the
install scripts it contains, again in alphanumeric order. These need to be named
with a two digit padded number at the beginning.
There are a number of different files and directories which can be used to
control different parts of the build process:
- **00-run.sh** - A unix shell script. Needs to be made executable for it to run.
- **00-run-chroot.sh** - A unix shell script which will be run in the chroot
of the image build directory. Needs to be made executable for it to run.
- **00-debconf** - Contents of this file are passed to debconf-set-selections
to configure things like locale, etc.
- **00-packages** - A list of packages to install. Can have more than one, space
separated, per line.
- **00-packages-nr** - As 00-packages, except these will be installed using
the ```--no-install-recommends -y``` parameters to apt-get.
- **00-patches** - A directory containing patch files to be applied, using quilt.
If a file named 'EDIT' is present in the directory, the build process will
be interrupted with a bash session, allowing an opportunity to create/revise
the patches.
* If the stage directory contains files called "EXPORT_NOOBS" or "EXPORT_IMAGE" then
add this stage to a list of images to generate
* Generate the images for any stages that have specified them
It is recommended to examine build.sh for finer details.
## Docker Build
Docker can be used to perform the build inside a container. This partially isolates
the build from the host system, and allows using the script on non-debian based
systems (e.g. Fedora Linux). The isolate is not complete due to the need to use
some kernel level services for arm emulation (binfmt) and loop devices (losetup).
To build:
```bash
vi config # Edit your config file. See above.
./build-docker.sh
```
If everything goes well, your finished image will be in the `deploy/` folder.
You can then remove the build container with `docker rm -v pigen_work`
If something breaks along the line, you can edit the corresponding scripts, and
continue:
```bash
CONTINUE=1 ./build-docker.sh
```
To examine the container after a failure you can enter a shell within it using:
```bash
sudo docker run -it --privileged --volumes-from=pigen_work pi-gen /bin/bash
```
After successful build, the build container is by default removed. This may be undesired when making incremental changes to a customized build. To prevent the build script from remove the container add
```bash
PRESERVE_CONTAINER=1 ./build-docker.sh
```
There is a possibility that even when running from a docker container, the
installation of `qemu-user-static` will silently fail when building the image
because `binfmt-support` _must be enabled on the underlying kernel_. An easy
fix is to ensure `binfmt-support` is installed on the host machine before
starting the `./build-docker.sh` script (or using your own docker build
solution).
## Stage Anatomy
### Raspbian Stage Overview
The build of Raspbian is divided up into several stages for logical clarity
and modularity. This causes some initial complexity, but it simplifies
maintenance and allows for more easy customization.
- **Stage 0** - bootstrap. The primary purpose of this stage is to create a
usable filesystem. This is accomplished largely through the use of
`debootstrap`, which creates a minimal filesystem suitable for use as a
base.tgz on Debian systems. This stage also configures apt settings and
installs `raspberrypi-bootloader` which is missed by debootstrap. The
minimal core is installed but not configured, and the system will not quite
boot yet.
- **Stage 1** - truly minimal system. This stage makes the system bootable by
installing system files like `/etc/fstab`, configures the bootloader, makes
the network operable, and installs packages like raspi-config. At this
stage the system should boot to a local console from which you have the
means to perform basic tasks needed to configure and install the system.
This is as minimal as a system can possibly get, and its arguably not
really usable yet in a traditional sense yet. Still, if you want minimal,
this is minimal and the rest you could reasonably do yourself as sysadmin.
- **Stage 2** - lite system. This stage produces the Raspbian-Lite image. It
installs some optimized memory functions, sets timezone and charmap
defaults, installs fake-hwclock and ntp, wifi and bluetooth support,
dphys-swapfile, and other basics for managing the hardware. It also
creates necessary groups and gives the pi user access to sudo and the
standard console hardware permission groups.
There are a few tools that may not make a whole lot of sense here for
development purposes on a minimal system such as basic Python and Lua
packages as well as the `build-essential` package. They are lumped right
in with more essential packages presently, though they need not be with
pi-gen. These are understandable for Raspbian's target audience, but if
you were looking for something between truly minimal and Raspbian-Lite,
here's where you start trimming.
- **Stage 3** - desktop system. Here's where you get the full desktop system
with X11 and LXDE, web browsers, git for development, Raspbian custom UI
enhancements, etc. This is a base desktop system, with some development
tools installed.
- **Stage 4** - Normal Raspbian image. System meant to fit on a 4GB card. This is the
stage that installs most things that make Raspbian friendly to new
users like system documentation.
- **Stage 5** - The Raspbian Full image. More development
tools, an email client, learning tools like Scratch, specialized packages
like sonic-pi, office productivity, etc.
### Stage specification
If you wish to build up to a specified stage (such as building up to stage 2
for a lite system), place an empty file named `SKIP` in each of the `./stage`
directories you wish not to include.
Then add an empty file named `SKIP_IMAGES` to `./stage4` and `./stage5` (if building up to stage 2) or
to `./stage2` (if building a minimal system).
```bash
# Example for building a lite system
echo "IMG_NAME='Raspbian'" > config
touch ./stage3/SKIP ./stage4/SKIP ./stage5/SKIP
touch ./stage4/SKIP_IMAGES ./stage5/SKIP_IMAGES
sudo ./build.sh # or ./build-docker.sh
```
If you wish to build further configurations upon (for example) the lite
system, you can also delete the contents of `./stage3` and `./stage4` and
replace with your own contents in the same format.
## Skipping stages to speed up development
If you're working on a specific stage the recommended development process is as
follows:
* Add a file called SKIP_IMAGES into the directories containing EXPORT_* files
(currently stage2, stage4 and stage5)
* Add SKIP files to the stages you don't want to build. For example, if you're
basing your image on the lite image you would add these to stages 3, 4 and 5.
* Run build.sh to build all stages
* Add SKIP files to the earlier successfully built stages
* Modify the last stage
* Rebuild just the last stage using ```sudo CLEAN=1 ./build.sh```
* Once you're happy with the image you can remove the SKIP_IMAGES files and
export your image to test
# Troubleshooting
## `64 Bit Systems`
Please note there is currently an issue when compiling with a 64 Bit OS. See https://github.com/RPi-Distro/pi-gen/issues/271
## `binfmt_misc`
Linux is able execute binaries from other architectures, meaning that it should be
possible to make use of `pi-gen` on an x86_64 system, even though it will be running
ARM binaries. This requires support from the [`binfmt_misc`](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binfmt_misc)
kernel module.
You may see the following error:
```
update-binfmts: warning: Couldn't load the binfmt_misc module.
```
To resolve this, ensure that the following files are available (install them if necessary):
```
/lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/fs/binfmt_misc.ko
/usr/bin/qemu-arm-static
```
You may also need to load the module by hand - run `modprobe binfmt_misc`.